Monkeypox outbreak: Causes, Transmission, Prevention, Treatment, and Affected Countries

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This is a decade of diseases with different forms of viruses disintegrating into natural systems and human life, taking control of the societal functioning with us humans as their single prey. Barely had the world begun to recover and reunite from the deadly coronavirus (Covid 19) when our television screens started popping flashes of the new destroyer to humankind, the monkeypox disease.

Some declare it is the same chicken pox disease manifested into a unique kind. In contrast, some think of a newer conspiracy by the first world order to integrate power and control of human life and the market. Several questions remain to be unlocked and answered to grasp an informed understanding of the entire notion of the monkeypox disease. This article attempts to fulfill this purpose of alarming and informing the readers to shield themselves from the current virus attack better.

What is the new monkeypox disease, and how did monkeypox start?

As new as it may seem, the new monkeypox disease (similar to symptoms of smallpox with less severity) was first discovered in 1958 when a pox-like disease outbreak appeared in the colonies of monkeys kept for research which gave the monkeypox disease its name. World health organization reports suggest that the first human case of the monkeypox virus was found in a nine-year-old child in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1970.

What is the monkeypox virus?

The zoonotic (animal to human transmission) disease-causing virus is a double-stranded DNA, belongs to the order Chitovirales family, poxviridae genus, and orthopoxvirus species. The central African (Congo basin) and the western African are the two distinct genetic clades of the monkeypox virus. The former has a past of greater transmissibility and severity.

What are the symptoms of monkeypox?

The World health organization warns of not confusing the disease with one another, exhibiting common symptoms such as that smallpox and chickenpox. The key monkeypox symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle each
  • Backache
  • Exhaustion and fatigue
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes

This is followed by skin eruption and rashing in the coming weeks, and the symptoms last from somewhere around 2 to 4 weeks.

 How does monkeypox spread?

These are the different ways of the spread of monkeypox disease:

  • Through direct contact with persons having rashes and scabs
  • Through close contact with body fluids
  • Intimate physical contact results in respiratory secretions
  • Coming in contact with items previously touched by infectious rash or body fluids
  • Passing of the virus to the fetus through the placenta in pregnant people
  • Possibility of getting the monkeypox infection via infected animals on being scratched or bitten

How to prevent monkeypox? (Is there a treatment for monkeypox)

The world still isn’t ready with a proven procedure to treat the infection. The WHO suggests some remedial measures though to fight the disease:

  • Avoid close contact with people having monkeypox virus symptoms like rashes
  • Use separate utensils and other items to prevent contact with the infected person’s body fluids
  • Immediate isolation in case of any acute symptoms
  • Cleaning skin rashes with simple antiseptics
  • Managing oral ulcers with lukewarm saline gargles
  • Rashes should be covered with light dressing in case of extensive lesions
  • Through good reading and learning, educate people about the risks and harms of the monkeypox infection

 Some medications used to cure smallpox do positively impact the decline of the monkeypox disease but are to be used only after proper consultations with the medical practitioner under specific conditions. These medicines include:

  • Techovirimat (TPOXX, ST – 246)
  • Vaccinia Immune Globulin Intravenous (VIGIV)
  • Cidofovir (Vistide)
  • Brincidofovir (CMX001 / Tembexa)

Monkeypox vaccine

Two vaccines: JYNNEOS (also known as Immune or Imvanex) and ACAM2000, have been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (US) to defend against the growing outbreak. CDC (Centre for disease control and prevention) is yet to release data on the efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine; the authority suggests taking adequate precautions and measures even after the vaccination process.

Cases of monkeypox (monkeypox-affected countries)

Apart from the African continent, where the outbreak first began, the monkeypox outbreak cases have recently been confirmed in almost 76 countries (approximately) worldwide. The list of countries where monkeypox outbreak cases have been suspected and confirmed includes Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US, UAE and very recently in India also.

Toll of monkeypox virus cases in some regions of the world.

Monkeypox Virus Texas

Monkeypox virus in Texas has been a major cause of concern in the United States, where the first case was recorded on June 7th, 2022. The toll increased to several 20 confirmed cases as per the latest report by the federal government.

A significant cause of worry and anxiety is the monkeypox outbreak in the UK. The maximum number of cases has been recorded, with 1236 cases detected. Second on the toll board in Spain, followed by Germany, each with 1196 and 1054 confirmed cases, respectively, as of the first week of July.

Monkeypox virus wales toll-board displays a total of 20 confirmed after the recent updates. The authorities have been alarmed, and people have been asked to take predictive measures as the cases have rapidly increased from the scene where it was none, even though several parts of the UK were already affected.

Check Latest: Health News

How many cases of monkeypox in India?

The monkeypox’s India stats reveal a total of 1 confirmed and one suspected case. The confirmed case was of an individual with a travel history to the UAE, where the virus has been spreading in numbers. Another suspected case has been identified in Andhra Pradesh (Vijayawada) which is of a child who recently traveled to UAE and returned to India in the present month. People are also concerned about monkeypox cases near Delhi since most international travelers land in the capital territory. Still, the state government has yet to release any statement.

What is the Average Monkeypox death rate?

Historically the virus has observed a case fatality ratio (that is, the number of deaths per confirmed case) in the range of 0 – 11 %. Recently figures have changed to around 3 – 6 % with different stats in different parts of the country. Experts note that the recent monkeypox virus outbreak cases would be simpler to contain than the Covid 19 infection and hence shouldn’t be a bigger deal to care about.

What Is the Difference Between Monkeypox & Smallpox?

Highly similar as they may look in terms of the symptoms and diagnosis, one needs to know some differentiating characteristics of the two diseases. The blisters appearing on the skin are usually more prominent in the case of monkeypox infection. Even though it can transmit from person to person, similar to the point of smallpox, the transmissions are much less in number for the monkeypox virus. Monkeypox also has unique symptoms of enlargement of lymph nodes and glands present in the body, which helps one differentiate between the two resembling viruses.

What Is the Difference Between Chickenpox vs monkeypox?

Despite the visible similarities between chickenpox and monkeypox disease, both have some scientific differences enough to differentiate the two. Belonging to the orthopoxvirus genus, monkeypox and smallpox differ from chickenpox infection, which is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) to reactivate even after recovery. Experts identify that, on the one hand, chickenpox is airborne (that is, it spreads through the air), whereas, on the other, monkeypox spreads more through intimate physical touch and contact.

Some Interesting Facts About Monkeypox

Some interesting facts about Monkey Pox that one might not know are discussed here.

  • The monkeypox disease has a duration of usually between 14 – 21 days.
  • The smallpox vaccine has proven to cure the monkeypox virus outbreak cases previously.
  • The monkeypox virus has been more fatal for the younger generation in the past, with fatality varying between 1 to 10 % of the cases.
  • The monkeypox virus was first discovered in monkeys in 1958, much before the first human case in 1970.
  • Several monkeypox outbreaks occurred before 2022 in the Central African Republic (2016), Sudan (2005), Democratic Republic of Congo (2009), and even in the United States (2005), where the giant Gambian rat was attributed to the prime source of the infection.

Final Words

Several people are still not aware of how dangerous can Monkeypox be and how to treat it if one gets diagnosed with it. In this article, all of the things that one must know are described in detail, starting from “A” to the endpoint “Z”. There are several misunderstandings when it comes to Monkeypox including how deadly it is, can it be cured at home? And many more like this. It is always better to believe the medical suggestions and pieces of advice for being on the safer side from the very beginning. Don’t refer to the societal suggestions until one is given by the doctor itself.

Always prefer to take precautions to be safe. Somehow if got diagnosed, consult the doctor right away. One must opt for complete care and rest with medicine until they get better. For more information stay tuned to wbdstbt.in.

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